Question: Why are there so many ETFs?
Answer: ETF providers tend to make lots of money on each ETF so they create more products to sell.
The large number of ETFs has little to do with serving your best interests. More reliable & proprietary fundamental data, proven in The Journal of Financial Economics, drives our research and analysis of ETF holdings. We leverage this data to identify three red flags you can use to avoid the worst ETFs:
1. Inadequate Liquidity
This issue is the easiest to avoid, and our advice is simple. Avoid all ETFs with less than $100 million in assets. Low levels of liquidity can lead to a discrepancy between the price of the ETF and the underlying value of the securities it holds. Plus, low asset levels tend to mean lower volume in the ETF and larger bid-ask spreads.
2. High Fees
ETFs should be cheap, but not all of them are. The first step here is to know what is cheap and expensive.
To ensure you are paying average or below average fees, invest only in ETFs with total annual costs below 0.47%, which is the average total annual costs of the 257 U.S. equity Sector ETFs we cover. The weighted average is lower at 0.30%, which highlights how investors tend to put their money in ETFs with low fees.
Figure 1 shows Invesco KBW High Dividend Yield Financial ETF (KBWD) is the most expensive sector ETF and Schwab U.S. REIT ETF (SCHH) is the least expensive. Fidelity (FMAT, FDIS, FSTA) provides three of the least expensive ETFs.
Figure 1: 5 Most and Least Expensive Sector ETFs
Sources: New Constructs, LLC and company filings
Investors need not pay high fees for quality holdings. Fidelity MSCI Consumer Staples Index ETF (FSTA) has low fees and quality holdings. FSTA’s Neutral Portfolio Management rating and 0.09% total annual cost earns it a Very Attractive rating. iShares U.S. Home Construction ETF (ITB) is the best ranked sector ETF overall. ITB’s Attractive Portfolio Management rating and 0.46% total annual cost also earn it a Very Attractive rating.
On the other hand, iShares Core U.S. REIT ETF (USRT) holds poor stocks and earns our Very Unattractive rating yet has low total annual costs of 0.08%. No matter how cheap an ETF, if it holds bad stocks, its performance will be bad. The quality of an ETF’s holdings matters more than its price.
3. Poor Holdings
Avoiding poor holdings is by far the hardest part of avoiding bad ETFs, but it is also the most important because an ETF’s performance is determined more by its holdings than its costs. Figure 2 shows the ETFs within each sector with the worst holdings or portfolio management ratings.
Figure 2: Sector ETFs with the Worst Holdings
Sources: New Constructs, LLC and company filings
Invesco (PYZ, PFI, PSCU) and State Street (XAR, RWR, XWEB) appear more often than any other provider in Figure 2, which means that it offers the most ETFs with the worst holdings.
First Trust NYSE Arca Biotechnology Index Fund (FBT) is the worst rated ETF in Figure 2. Franklin Disruptive Commerce ETF (BUYZ), SPDR S&P Aerospace & Defense ETF (XAR), SPDR S&P Internet ETF (XWEB), SPDR Dow Jones REIT ETF (RWR), Invesco DWA Basic Materials Momentum ETF (PYZ), Fidelity MSCI Energy Index ETF (FENY), and Invesco S&P Small Cap Utilities & Com. Service (PSCU) also earn a Very Unattractive predictive overall rating, which means not only do they hold poor stocks, they charge high total annual costs.
The Danger Within
Buying an ETF without analyzing its holdings is like buying a stock without analyzing its business and finances. Put another way, research on ETF holdings is necessary due diligence because an ETF’s performance is only as good as its holdings’ performance. Don’t just take our word for it, see what Barron’s says on this matter.
PERFORMANCE OF ETFs HOLDINGs = PERFORMANCE OF ETF
Analyzing each holding within funds is no small task. Our Robo-Analyst technology enables us to perform this diligence with scale and provide the research needed to fulfill the fiduciary duty of care. More of the biggest names in the financial industry (see At BlackRock, Machines Are Rising Over Managers to Pick Stocks) are now embracing technology to leverage machines in the investment research process. Technology may be the only solution to the dual mandate for research: cut costs and fulfill the fiduciary duty of care. Investors, clients, advisors and analysts deserve the latest in technology to get the diligence required to make prudent investment decisions.
This article originally published on April 30, 2021.
Disclosure: Kyle Guske II owns USRT. David Trainer, Kyle Guske II, Alex Sword, and Matt Shuler receive no compensation to write about any specific stock, sector, or theme.
 Harvard Business School features the powerful impact of our research automation technology in the case New Constructs: Disrupting Fundamental Analysis with Robo-Analysts.