Net operating profit after-tax (NOPAT) is the unlevered, after-tax operating cash generated by a business. It represents the true, normal and recurring profitability of a business. GAAP earnings or, even worse, non-GAAP earnings, are highly unreliable and are subject to misleading management manipulation.

As the numerator in our return on invested capital (ROIC) calculation, NOPAT is a very important value, and we place a great deal of importance on getting it right.

Figure 1: How To Calculate NOPAT

NOPATDefinition

Sources: New Constructs, LLC and company filings 

When we calculate NOPAT, we make numerous adjustments to close accounting loopholes and ensure apples-to-apples comparability across thousands of companies. A company shouldn’t be able to hide from its mistakes, for instance, hidden, unusual losses.

Figure 2 shows the companies with the most under/overstated GAAP earnings as compared to NOPAT.

Figure 2: Companies With Most Understated/Overstated Earnings

NewConstructs_MostOverUnderstatedEarnings_2016-04-11

Sources:   New Constructs, LLC and company filings.

Per Figure 2, Entergy Corporation’s NOPAT is $24.8 billion less than its already negative GAAP earnings. Our NOPAT calculation for ETR can be seen here. You can see that due to large losses from unconsolidated subsidiaries, Entergy’s operating expenses were significantly higher than in previous years, which lead to the drastic decline in NOPAT from the prior year.

Novartis (NVS), Lloyds Banking Group (LYG), Chevron (CVX) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) also have significantly overstated GAAP net income after adjustments for non-operating expenses, expenses or income hidden in operating earnings, or asset write downs are made. Here’s the Adjustment Page from our model, which shows exactly how we adjust Chevron’s GAAP Net Income to calculate NOPAT. We also show how to convert Total Assets to Invested Capital.

On the other hand, Apache Corp’s (APA) GAAP net income greatly understates its NOPAT. See our NOPAT calculation for APA each year dating back to 1998 here. In 2015, Apache Corp had write-downs totaling over $27 billion. Because asset write-downs are an unusual charge and distort recurring core profitability, we remove them from our NOPAT calculation. To ensure profitability metrics aren’t distorted, our models capture the after-tax value of write-downs in invested capital. Such large write-downs in 2015 may have kept Apache’s NOPAT higher, but they drove down its return on invested capital (ROIC) from 4% in 2014 to -0.4% in 2015.

Chesapeake Energy (CHK), Devon Energy (DVN), General Electric (GE), and Freeport-McMoRan (FCX) each reported GAAP net income that understated the true recurring profits of their business operations as well. See the conversion of General Electric’s GAAP net income to NOPAT here.

Our models and calculations are 100% transparent because we want our clients to know how much work we do to ensure we give them the best earnings quality and valuation models in the business.

Disclosure: David Trainer and Kyle Guske II receive no compensation to write about any specific stock, sector, style, or theme.

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    3 replies to "Net Operating Profit After-Tax (NOPAT): Explanation & Examples"

    • Dan

      Hi,

      Regarding the ETR example, would you mind explaining why you started to remove the Other regulatory charges credits – net in 2002 and not before?

      Thank you

    • Sam McBride

      Good question. We actually remove the “Other regulatory charges (credits) – net” item in all years. However, that item only shows up on the “Other Operating Income” line in the model when it is a credit. In years where ETR records a charge for that item, it is bundled with the rest of “Other Operating Expense” in our model.

    • Dan

      My question wasn’t clear.

      First of all I’m comparing Total Net Non-Operating Expense between 2002 [864.17] and 2003 [431.23].

      To get to 864.17 one needs to sum the same items as in the previous years:

      864.17 = [Interest on long-term debt] + [Other interest – net] + [Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction] – [Allowance for equity funds used during construction] – [Gain on sale of assets – net] – [Interest and dividend income] – [Miscellaneous – net] + [Provision for turbine commitments, asset impairments and restructuring charges] = 507.604 + 116.519 – 34.538 – 31.658 – 6.612 – 118.325 – 7.28 + 428.456. Note that there is no mention of the [Other regulatory charges (credits) – net] line item which is a credit of 141.836.

      According to the same logic then we should have the following equality
      431.23 = 485.964 + 53.553 – 33.191 – 42.71 – 0 – 87.386 + 76.505 (negative miscellaneous) – 7.743 (negative provision)
      but there is a -13.761 missing which corresponds to [Other regulatory credits – net] and is a credit like the year before and the year before that as well.

      Sincerely

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